A history of the american civil war and the reconstruction period

As a reward, the pro-war Southern Democrat was appointed as military governor of Tennessee, and later asked to join Abraham Lincoln's ticket as vice-presidential candidate. Reconstruction refers to the period following the Civil War of rebuilding the United States.

A history of the american civil war and the reconstruction period

In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in with Emancipation and the Port Royal experiment rather than Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in TennesseeArkansasand Louisiana during the war. He experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina.

By fallthe new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the ending of slavery achieved and reconstruction completed. In ten states, [10] coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North carpetbaggersand white Southerners who supported Reconstruction scalawags cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments.

They introduced various reconstruction programs including: Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction. Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan KKKa secretive terrorist organization closely allied with the southern Democratic Party.

Emancipation and Reconstruction

Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the south favoring those civil rights.

One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S.

Grant inwhich suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democratscalling themselves " Redeemers ", regained control of the south state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections.

A deep national economic depression following the Panic of led to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.

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With the Compromise ofmilitary intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South. This was followed by a period which white Southerners labeled "Redemption", during which white-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws and, beginning indisenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and electoral laws.

Intense controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues. By the s, Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the constitution, and blacks were voting and taking political office. Republican legislatures, coalitions of whites and blacks, established the first public school systems and numerous charitable institutions in the South.

White paramilitary organizationsespecially the Ku Klux Klan and also the White League and Red Shirts formed with the political aim of driving out the Republicans. They also disrupted political organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls. From toconservative whites calling themselves " Redeemers " regained power in the Southern states.

They joined the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party. In the s and s the terms "radical" and "conservative" had distinctive meanings. Leaders who had been Whigs were committed to economic modernization, built around railroads, factories, banks and cities. Passage of the 13th14thand 15th Amendments is the constitutional legacy of Reconstruction.

These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights that led to Supreme Court rulings in the midth century that struck down school segregation. A "Second Reconstruction", sparked by the Civil Rights Movementled to civil rights laws in and that ended segregation and re-opened the polls to blacks.

Material devastation of the South in [ edit ] Further information: Broad Street, Reconstruction played out against an economy in ruin.

A history of the american civil war and the reconstruction period

The Confederacy in had towns and cities with a total population ofpeople; of these withpeople were at one point occupied by Union forces.

The rate of damage in smaller towns was much lower—only 45 courthouses were burned out of a total of Bythe Confederate dollar was worthless due to high inflation, and people in the South had to resort to bartering services for goods, or else use scarce Union dollars.

With the emancipation of the southern slaves, the entire economy of the South had to be rebuilt. Having lost their enormous investment in slaves, white planters had minimal capital to pay freedmen workers to bring in crops.

A history of the american civil war and the reconstruction period

As a result, a system of sharecropping was developed where landowners broke up large plantations and rented small lots to the freedmen and their families.Watch video · The Union victory in the Civil War in may have given some 4 million slaves their freedom, but the process of rebuilding the South during the Reconstruction period () introduced a new.

According to historian Rayford Logan, the nadir of American race relations was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War.

Reconstruction refers to the period immediately after the Civil War from to when several United States administrations sought to reconstruct society in the former Confederate states in particular by establishing and protecting the legal rights of the newly freed black population.

Reconstruction, in U.S. history, the period (–77) that followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war.

The period after the Civil War, - , was called the Reconstruction period. Abraham Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War as Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South. He wanted to bring the Nation back together as quickly as possible and in.

Reconstruction refers to the period immediately after the Civil War from to when several United States administrations sought to reconstruct society in the former Confederate states in particular by establishing and protecting the legal rights of the newly freed black population.

Nadir of American race relations - Wikipedia