Messengers from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus had urged the pope to send help against the armies of Muslim Turks.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Each state was organized into a pattern of lordships by the ruling Christian minority.
The institutions of the kingdom of Jerusalem are best known, partly because its history figures more prominently in both Arab and Christian chronicles but especially because its documents were better preserved. Though this collection reflects a later situation, certain sections and many individual enactments can be traced back to the 12th century, the period known as the First Kingdom.
In the first half of the 12th century, the kingdom presented the appearance of a typical European monarchy, with lordships owing military service and subject to fiscal exactions.
There were, however, important differences, not only in the large subject population of diverse ethnic origins but also with respect to the governing minority. No great families with extensive domains emerged in the early years, and the typical noble did not, as in Europe, live in a rural castle or manor house.
Although castles existed, they were garrisoned by knights and, increasingly as the century advanced, by the religio-military orders. Most barons in the kingdom lived in the fortified towns. The kings, moreover, possessed a considerable domain and retained extensive judicial rights, which made the monarchy a relatively strong institution in early Jerusalem.
Toward the middle of the century, this situation changed. Partly as a consequence of increased immigration from the West, the baronial class grew, and a relatively small group of magnates with large domains emerged.
As individuals, they were less disposed to brook royal interference, and, as a class and in the court of barons Haute Cour, or High Courtthey were capable of presenting a formidable challenge to royal authority. The last of the kings of Jerusalem to exercise effective power was Amalric I in the 12th century.
In the final years of the First Kingdom, baronial influence was increasingly evident and dissension among the barons, as a consequence, more serious. The Knights of the Hospital of St. John, or Hospitallerswas founded in the 11th century by the merchants of Amalfi to provide hospital care for pilgrims.
But during the 12th century, in response to the military needs of the kingdom, the Hospitallers also became an order of knights, as did the Templarsthe Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, so named because of their headquarters in the former temple of Solomon.
The Templars originated as a monastic-military organization dedicated to protecting pilgrims on the way to Jerusalem, and their rule, composed by St. Bernard of Clairvauxwas officially sanctioned by the Council of Troyes Although the Templars and Hospitallers took monastic vows, their principal function was soldiering.
TemplarOverview of the Templars also called Knights Templar. They maintained permanent garrisons in these castles and supplemented the otherwise inadequate forces of the barons and king.
Moreover, because they were soon established in Europe as well, they became international organizations. Virtually independent, sanctioned and constantly supported by the papacy, and exempt from local ecclesiastical jurisdiction, they aroused the jealousy of the clergy and constituted a serious challenge to royal authority.
The Greek patriarch of Antioch was removed, and all subsequent incumbents were Latin except in one brief period beforewhen imperial pressure brought about the installation of a Greek.The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims over control of holy sites in the Middle East.
In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between and A. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Crusader States: The History of the European States Established in the Middle East during the Crusades at regardbouddhiste.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
Crusades - The Third Crusade: The news of the fall of Jerusalem reached Europe even before the arrival there of Archbishop Josius of Tyre, whom the Crusaders had sent with urgent appeals for aid. Pope Urban III soon died, shocked, it was said, by the sad news. His successor, Gregory VIII, issued a Crusade bull and called for fasting and penitence.
During the last four decades the Crusades have become one of the most dynamic areas of historical enquiry, which points to an increasing curiosity to understand and interpret these extraordinary events.
What persuaded people in the Christian West to want to recapture Jerusalem? This period of the history of the Latin East is related in. The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The name also refers to other territorial gains (often small and short-lived) made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries.
Nov 07, · History of the Christian Crusades. In the after-math of the First Crusade, Latin colonists in the Levant established four states.
The largest and most powerful of .