Salient aspects of Art, Architecture, literature from Ancient to Modern Times How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of Gupta numismatic art is not at all noticeable in later times? Critically evaluate this comment.
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music.
Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves.
Athens was the home of Socrates Platoand the Platonic Academy. By the late 6th century BC, all the Greek city states in Asia Minor had been incorporated into the Persian Empirewhile the latter had made territorial gains in the Balkans such as MacedonThracePaeoniaetc.
In the course of the 5th century BC, some of the Greek city states attempted to overthrow Persian rule in the Ionian Revoltwhich failed. This sparked the first Persian invasion of mainland Greece. At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Warsnamely during the Second Persian invasion of Greeceand precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisiumalmost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
With the end of the Greco-Persian wars, the Persians were eventually decisively forced to withdraw from their territories in Europe. The Greco-Persian Wars and the victory of the Greek city states directly influenced the entire further course of European history and would set its further tone.
The Peloponnesian Wars ensued, and the Peloponnesian League was victorious. Subsequently, discontent with Spartan hegemony led to the Corinthian War and the defeat of Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra.
Hellenic infighting left Greek city states vulnerable, and Philip II of Macedon united the Greek city states under his control. The son of Philip II, known as Alexander the Greatinvaded neighboring Persiatoppled and incorporated its domains, as well as invading Egypt and going as far off as Indiaincreasing contact with people and cultures in these regions that marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
After the death of Alexander, his empire split into multiple kingdoms ruled by his generals, the Diadochi. The Diadochi fought against each other only three major kingdoms remained: Ptolemaic Egyptthe Seleucid Empire and Macedonia kingdom.
These kingdoms spread Greek culture to regions as far away as Bactria. First governed by kingsthen as a senatorial republic the Roman RepublicRome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in AD, under the emperor Trajan The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers.
In the 4th century, the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were able to slow down the process of decline by splitting the empire into a Western part with a capital in Rome and an Eastern part with the capital in Byzantium, or Constantinople now Istanbul.
Whereas Diocletian severely persecuted Christianity, Constantine declared an official end to state-sponsored persecution of Christians in with the Edict of Milanthus setting the stage for the Church to become the state church of the Roman Empire in about Decline of the Roman Empire[ edit ] Main articles: Gibbon said that the adoption of Christianity, meant belief in a better life after death, and therefore made people lazy and indifferent to the present.
Bowersock has remarked,  "we have been obsessed with the fall: Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople inthe death of Theodosius I in the last time the Roman Empire was politically unifiedthe crossing of the Rhine in by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the legions to defend Italy against Alaric Ithe death of Stilicho infollowed by the disintegration of the western legions, the death of Justinian Ithe last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, inand the coming of Islam after Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation.
Late Antiquity and Migration Period[ edit ] Main articles:Blackrock is the world’s biggest asset management company, in charge of $ trillion of assets (including much of Zambia’s copper via its shares). JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The Cold War dominated European geo-politics from to Unification into a European Union moved forward after , with some setbacks. Today, most countries west of Russia belong to the NATO military alliance, along with the United States and Canada.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw migrations from east and southeast and the following important cultural and material exchange.
The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Blackrock is the world’s biggest asset management company, in charge of $ trillion of assets (including much of Zambia’s copper via its shares).