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Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c.
They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country's institutions e. Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and more intolerant of hierarchy.
They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. Census of had officially stated that the American frontier had broken up.
He sounded an alarming note, speculating as to what this meant for the continued dynamism of American society as the source of U.
South Africa, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and Australia—and even ancient Rome—had long frontiers that were also settled by pioneers. The question is whether their frontiers were powerful enough to overcome conservative central forces based in the metropolis.
In Australia, "mateship" and working together was valued more than individualism was in the United States. Roosevelt argued that the battles between the trans-Appalachian pioneers and the Indians in the "Winning of the West" had forged a new people, the American race.
Turner's thesis quickly became popular among intellectuals. It explained why the American people and American government were so different from their European counterparts. It was popular among New Dealers—Franklin Roosevelt and his top aides  thought in terms of finding new frontiers.
This is the great, the nation-wide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear. This is the frontier—the America—we have set ourselves to reclaim. However, others viewed this interpretation as the impetus for a new wave in the history of United States imperialism.
William Appleman Williams led the "Wisconsin School" of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century. Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism.
Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.
Mode inargued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the Mormonsthe Church of Christthe Disciples of Christand the Cumberland Presbyterians.
The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching.
This view dominated religious historiography for decades. Micheaux promoted the West as a place where blacks could transcend race and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance.
Disneyland 's Frontierland of the mid to late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage.
The public has ignored academic historians' anti-Turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage.
However, the work of historians during the s—s, some of whom sought to bury Turner's conception of the frontier, and others who sought to spare the concept but with nuance, have done much to place Western myths in context.
Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up Subsequent critics, historians, and politicians have suggested that other 'frontiers,' such as scientific innovation, could serve similar functions in American development.
Historians have noted that John F.
Kennedy in the early s explicitly called upon the ideas of the frontier. My call is to the young in heart, regardless of age—to the stout in spirit, regardless of party.Turner’s article, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” written in explained the views of the Great West and how the Frontier changed the society of America.
The Frontier Line changed political views of the Great West, known as, “the existence of an area of free land.”. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
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