It lasted until the year when Constantinople was conquered by the Turks. Though the Byzantines emphasized their Roman origins, as time passed, they gradually distanced from their roots. The culture and language are more and more influenced by the Hellenization of the Empire and its theocracy. It was prominent for its unique organization of government, excellently equipped army with a remarkable war technique, developed economic and monetary system, and above all that it was enormously wealthy.
The Roman and Christian background Unity and diversity in the late Roman Empire The Roman Empire, the ancestor of the Byzantine, remarkably blended unity and diversitythe former being by far the better known, since its constituents were the predominant features of Roman civilization.
To strengthen those sinews of imperial civilization, the emperors hoped that a lively and spontaneous trade might develop between the several provinces.
At the pinnacle of that world stood the emperor himself, the man of wisdom who would shelter the state from whatever mishaps fortune had darkly hidden.
The emperor alone could provide that protection, since, as the embodiment of all the virtues, he possessed in perfection those qualities displayed only imperfectly by his individual subjects.
The Roman formula of combating fortune with reason and therewith ensuring unity throughout the Mediterranean world worked surprisingly well in view of the pressures for disunity that time was to multiply.
Conquest had brought regions of diverse background under Roman rule. The Eastern provinces were ancient and populous centres of that urban life that for millennia had defined the character of Mediterranean civilization.
The Western provinces had only lately entered upon their own course of urban development under the not-always-tender ministrations of their Roman masters.
Each of the aspects of unity enumerated above had its other side. Not everyone understood or spoke Latin. Paralleling and sometimes influencing Roman law were local customs and practices, understandably tenacious by reason of their antiquity.
Pagan temples, Jewish synagoguesand Christian baptisteries attest to the range of organized religions with which the official forms of the Roman state, including those of emperor worship, could not always peacefully coexist.
And far from unifying the Roman world, economic growth often created self-sufficient units in the several regions, provinces, or great estates. Grateful for the conditions of peace that fostered it, men of wealth and culture dedicated their time and resources to glorifying that tradition through adornment of the cities that exemplified it and through education of the young who they hoped might perpetuate it.
Upon that world the barbarians descended after about ce.
To protect the frontier against them, warrior emperors devoted whatever energies they could spare from the constant struggle to reassert control over provinces where local regimes emerged.
In view of the ensuing warfare, the widespread incidence of disease, and the rapid turnover among the occupants of the imperial throne, it would be easy to assume that little was left of either the traditional fabric of Greco-Roman society or the bureaucratic structure designed to support it. Neither assumption is accurate.
Devastation was haphazard, and some regions suffered while others did not. In fact, the economy and society of the empire as a whole during that period was the most diverse it had ever been. Impelled by necessity or lured by profit, people moved from province to province.
Social disorder opened avenues to eminence and wealth that the more-stable order of an earlier age had closed to the talented and the ambitious.
For personal and dynastic reasons, emperors favoured certain towns and provinces at the expense of others, and the erratic course of succession to the throne, coupled with a resulting constant change among the top administrative officials, largely deprived economic and social policies of recognizable consistency.
The reforms of Diocletian and Constantine The definition of consistent policy in imperial affairs was the achievement of two great soldier-emperors, Diocletian ruled — and Constantine I sole emperor —who together ended a century of anarchy and refounded the Roman state. There are many similarities between them, not the least being the range of problems to which they addressed themselves: Both, in consequence, were eager to refine and regularize certain desperate expedients that had been adopted by their rough military predecessors to conduct the affairs of the Roman state.
Thus, in the matter of succession to the imperial office, Diocletian adopted precedents he could have found in the practices of the 2nd century ce. He associated with himself a coemperor, or Augustus.
Each Augustus then adopted a young colleague, or Caesar, to share in the rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.
That rule of four, or tetrarchy, failed of its purpose, and Constantine replaced it with the dynastic principle of hereditary succession, a procedure generally followed in subsequent centuries.
To divide administrative responsibilities, Constantine replaced the single praetorian prefectwho had traditionally exercised both military and civil functions in close proximity to the emperor, with regional prefects established in the provinces and enjoying civil authority alone.Learn byzantine empire people with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of byzantine empire people flashcards on Quizlet. ROME AND ROMANIA, 27 BC AD. Emperors of the Roman and the so-called Byzantine Empires; Princes, Kings, and Tsars of Numidia, Judaea, Bulgaria, Serbia, Wallachia, & Moldavia;.
As with many other aspects of society, the early stages of the Byzantine empire mimicked their Roman counterparts in the style of dress as well, though the Byzantines eventually adapted and adopted styles unto regardbouddhiste.com the beginning, however, togas were very .
2 architecture: of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a style of architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire especially in the fifth and sixth centuries featuring the dome carried on pendentives over a square and incrustation with marble veneering and with colored mosaics on grounds of gold.
Start studying Byzantine empire important people. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from to regardbouddhiste.com its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r.
CE), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time or another, possessing territories located in Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Levant, Asia Minor, and North Africa.