Ocular tuberculosis

Toni Venckus, CRA A year-old male was referred by an optometrist because of a pigmented scar in the right eye. The patient complained of black spots in his vision for the past week.

Ocular tuberculosis

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Region-Specific Information (Asia)

Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive.

Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis.

Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated.

The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis.

Ocular tuberculosis

The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications. TB has existed since ancient times. Evidence of tuberculous pathology was present in fragments of spinal columns from Egyptian mummies.

In ancient Greece, the disease was known as consumption, and was uniformly fatal. Instreptomycin was first used to treat patients with pulmonary TB.

Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

There is an increasing number of TB infections in both the developing and developed world due to multidrug-resistant TB, human immunodeficiency virus HIVand global migration.

Uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation of the disease, but a direct association is difficult to prove. It is still unknown if tuberculous uveitis results from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction, and this is reflected on its management.

The aim of this review article is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis.

The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test TSTand use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications. Clinical features MTB is an obligate aerobic bacteria, usually found in highly oxygenated tissue.

Primary disease is rare, and includes eyelid, conjunctival, corneal, and scleral lesions, while the uveal tract, retina, and optic nerve are involved in secondary disease. Inflammation of the uveal tract is the most common eye manifestation of the disease, due to its high blood supply.

Prevalence of TB as an etiology of uveitis has varied from 0. Ocular inflammation could be unilateral or bilateral, sometimes inflammation of one eye starts months or years before the other.Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis.

INTRODUCTION

Ocular tuberculosis has always been considered rare, yet its incidence has varied widely across time, patient populations, and geography. In , Donahue 7 reported an incidence of ocular tuberculosis of % in 10 patients from a tuberculosis sanitarium.

Intraocular TB is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary TB, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary TB patients may not have pulmonary TB. In recent years, there is a growing concern for TB as a major public health problem, increasing the prevalence of tuberculous eye disease.

These plaques are predominately associated with toxoplasmosis infections but were originally reported in association with ocular tuberculosis in [5] It may be less commonly seen with syphilis, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, and others.

In recent years, ocular involvement due to TB has re-emerged.

Tuberculous Uveitis

Tuberculous uveitis is a readily treatable disease and the consequences of delay in either ocular or . Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can cause disease in multiple organs throughout the body, including the eye.

The term “ocular TB” describes an infection by the M. tuberculosis species that can affect any part of the eye (intraocular, superficial, or surrounding the eye), with or without systemic involvement.

Tuberculosis - Wikipedia